USWNT Goalkeeping Eras

cover photo from Andy Mead/Icon Sportswire

The most exclusive position in all of US Soccer: the USWNT’s goalkeeper. Only 23 women have played goalkeeper for the national team in 34 years. Branching off the men’s goalkeeping era post I did a few years ago, the same methodology applies here. The graph portrays a goalkeeper’s percentage of their own games played vs. the available caps in the previous two years. For example, at the end of December 2012, Hope Solo had 31 appearances in the last two years (dating back to the start of 2011). There were only 7 non-Solo goalkeeper caps (Barnhart 5, Loyden 2) in the timespan, giving Solo a 82% share. This is also why a goalkeeper’s last cap will occur two years before their space on the graph completely fades out. Below is the complete list of every goalkeeper that’s played for the national team as well as the corresponding graphs.

All-Time USWNT Goalkeeper Caps

1. Hope Solo (2000-2016) - 202
2. Briana Scurry (1994-2008) - 175
3. Nicole Barnhart (2005-13) - 53
4. Siri Mullinix (1999-04) - 45
5. Alyssa Naeher (2014-present) - 38
6. Saskia Webber (1992-2000) - 28
7. Mary Harvey (1989-96) - 27
8. Tracy Ducar (1996-99) - 24
9. Amy Allman (1987-91) - 24
10. Ashlyn Harris (2013-present) - 19

11. Lakeysia Beene (2000-03) - 18
12. Kim Maslin-Kammerdeiner (1988-91) - 17
13. Kristin Luckenbill (2004) - 14
14. Jill Loyden (2010-14) - 10
15. Kim Wyant (1985-93) - 9
16. Jen Branam (2000, 06) - 6
17. Janine Szpara (1986-87) - 6
18. Jen Mead (1993-1997) - 6
19. Jaime Pagliarulo (1997, 01) - 3
20. Jane Campbell (2017-present) - 3

21. Emily Oleksiuk (2001) - 2
22. Gretchen Gegg (1986, 90) - 2
23. Ruth Harker (1985) - 2

1985 - 1991

The first half decade games were erratic and scarce. 1987, 1989, and 1991 the national team played 11, 1, and 28 games, respectively. UCF alum Kim Wyant started in each of the six first games while Amy Allman and Mary Harvey collected the bulk of the appearances for the time. Allman played in sixteen of the ninteen games from 1987-1988 but would eventually play backup to Harvey, who led the team to a first place finish at the very first World Cup.


As Harvey’s time with the national team waned, some new faces would eventually supplant the World Champion. Harvey was 30 by the time the 1995 World Cup rolled around and while Saskia Webber had established herself as a promising young goalkeeper, it was Briana Scurry who sprang onto the scene at the start of 1994. Until the end of the decade, Scurry received at least half of the caps every year, with UNC product Tracy Ducar (née Noonan) making the biggest dent at the end of 1997. Siri Mullinix started the 2000 Olympic silver medal run as then coach April Heinrichs opted for Mullinix over Scurry due to her spending "too much time appearing on talk shows and too little time at the gym”. A young hotshot goalkeeper named Hope Solo earned her first cap in the spring of 2000.


Solo managed to earn a bulk of the caps for over a decade, dipping off slightly due to a solider surgery at the end of 2010. Scurry would start for the USWNT during the 2011 and 2015 World Cups but the starting spot in the summer of 2007 was split between Scurry and Solo. Barnhart notched 53 appearances over her career as the 37 year old is heading into camp yet again with the Utah Royals. Alyssa Naeher was been the number one goalkeeper since 2017 but as the next five years could look something similar to 2002 or 1993 as the team may start testing out other options at the position.

Player Journal: Bobby Edwards Looks Back on His Collegiate Experience

After a long journey, Bobby wraps up the college chapters in his player journal. You can read all five of his here, dating back to the summer of 2016.

The last time we talked you were at Monmouth. Catch us up from what happened over the past year that led you to Mount St. Mary's.

 When I graduated from Monmouth in the Spring of 2018, I had a remaining year of NCAA eligibility because of my redshirt junior season due to injury. I recognized that I needed to take a long term view regarding my career goals. Although my short term goal is to play professionally, in the best case scenario, two thirds of my work life will take place after I hang up the boots. I can’t imagine myself spending 30 years of my life sitting all day in an office somewhere. My passion has always been soccer, so I felt the need to begin preparing myself now for a transition somewhere down the road to a position in the business of soccer, preferably in high level coaching. I loved my time at Monmouth, both on and off the field, but I didn’t want to spend my final year of eligibility pursuing a master’s degree that wouldn’t fit with my long term dreams.

Bobby started all sixteen games for the Mount this past fall.

Bobby started all sixteen games for the Mount this past fall.

Therefore, I began looking at schools that offered a master’s in Sports Management, the degree that I felt best suited my long-term goals. This led me to Mount Saint Mary’s University, where Coach Bryan Cunningham sold me on the opportunity I would have to be a part of building a DI soccer program from the ground up. It’s important to note that MSMU discontinued their men’s soccer team in 2012, but thanks to an amazing amount of support from alumni, staff and school administration, the University opted to bring back the program for the 2018 season. This season was an incredible learning experience, with our team being primarily comprised of freshmen and sophomores. In fact, I was the only player on the team that had any prior DI soccer experience. Getting the opportunity to play the “veteran leader” role was unlike any other experience I have had in my career thus far. It helped me mature both on and off the field and better prepared me for the next step in my journey.


At the end of your college career, you suited up for three different schools. Is there anything you'd change if you could go back and do it all again?

On the “micro” level, there are of course particular decisions I made in certain games that I would absolutely do differently if I had the chance – staying on my line instead of coming out, a catch rather than a punch, etc. But that’s the nature of goalkeeping and it is through our mistakes that we learn. So when looking at the bigger picture, I really like where I find myself now as a player and a person. I recognize that the journey I made, with its various twists and turns and highs and lows, is responsible for having brought me to this place. There were times when I felt a bit lost and questioned my path, but I was able to persevere – and learning how to persevere is at the essence of what is required to being a goalkeeper. I’ve learned that there is so much that is out of my control in regard to how a game or a season will evolve. So it is best to focus on what is under my control and to a large extent that is the attitude I bring to training and games. I constantly remind myself that the short term setbacks are not what will determine if I can accomplish my long-term goals.



As someone who's seen a variety of different programs, when considering helping players get to the next level, what's the strongest resource the NCAA has to offer?

In my opinion, there is no resource more valuable than that of a good head coach. When we speak about college soccer, we are often keen to focus on just the “on-the-field” stuff - wins, losses, goals, etc. In reality, that only makes up a fraction of what a college head coaches’ job truly is. College coaching is unique - coaches are responsible for taking 18 year old teenagers and developing them into adults, which goes far beyond the field. Less than 2% of college soccer players continue on to the professional ranks, so if players leave a university with nothing more to show for it than a better understanding of the sport, you’ve let the majority of your players down in their life’s development.

Bobby Edwards with former head Coach Jim Deegan (center) and Bryan Cunningham (right, current head coach).

Bobby Edwards with former head Coach Jim Deegan (center) and Bryan Cunningham (right, current head coach).

For the 1.4% of players who do continue on to the pros, a good college coach is invaluable to their professional ambitions. How many different connections does he/she have? Are they well established with professional teams? Are they experienced in sending guys to the pro leagues often? It might not be fair, but the reality of the situation is that sometimes it isn’t a matter of how talented you are, but rather if you have the right connections to the next level. Don’t get me wrong, you won’t sign a professional contract because of a connection, but a good coach with the right contacts can get your foot in the door.  Personally, I have been unbelievably lucky to play for Coach Cunningham at MSMU - his reputation speaks for itself and whenever I’m in his office, I admire all the professional jerseys that decorate his walls. Coach Cunningham and Assistant Coach Trevor Singer have been two of the best (if not the best) coaches I have had the privilege to play for. They are second to none and I have learned an incredible amount in just one year under their leadership. In regard to my professional ambitions, I sleep very well at night knowing that Coach Cunningham and Coach Singer are on my side.

What's the future look like moving forward? Would there be any disappointment if you never suited up in a professional match?

The dream is the same as it has always been - professional soccer. At the moment, I am keeping fit and staying sharp while I finish up my master’s degree. Come May, I’ll be heading back to South Carolina for the summer to play PDL (USL League 2 it’s called now, I guess) with SC United Bantams, the same club I was with last summer. I had an incredible experience last summer, SC United Bantams is a top-class organization made up of some of the best people I have met -  I cannot wait to be back.  After another summer in South Carolina, I’ll head off to trial both here and abroad and attempt to make playing soccer my job. It’s pretty crazy to say that! I’m confident in my future and excited in what is to come.

To say that there would be disappointment if I never suited up in a professional match is an understatement. The one and only thing I have ever dreamed of since I was a kid was becoming a professional soccer player. My cousin, Brian Edwards, has been my lifelong soccer idol. In fact, I still have an autographed photo of him in my room. Brian played at Wake Forest, winning the NCAA national championship in ‘07 before being drafted to the MLS. I used to watch all his games, even following him regularly when he went abroad to Sweden, always dreaming to one day follow suite. If I never ended up going pro, I wouldn’t just feel like I’ve let myself down, I feel like I would let down the family name.

Pictures of Edwards with SC United Bantams as well as Bobby’s cousin, Brian.

Lastly, and ending on a positive note here, what's your best save in your college career and what makes it a highlight of your career?

That’s a tough one! I’d have to answer this one with two different saves for different reasons. Both saves came this year – the first one was against FDU and the second was against LIU Brooklyn. When you analyze a save, there are many different factors that need to be considered. Of course, the overall talent and skill it takes to make the save is of major importance – everybody loves a save that looks great for the cameras. But even more important is a save that comes at a crucial point in a game – one that keeps your team in the game even if it isn’t as picture perfect. Sometimes you get lucky and pull off both at once!

My save against FDU was a highlight because it kept our team in the game against a very talented FDU side - we ended up walking away with a 0-0 draw. The save itself is perhaps not the best of technique, I get caught cheating to one side right before the striker hit the shot. The way it played out in real time, I was almost certain he was going to hit it hard and low to my left side. I still remember my heart dropping as I saw the ball come off his foot headed back the other way. Somehow, I managed to get my foot on the ball and pop it up and over the bar. I’ll never forget getting back into the locker room for our halftime meeting and having a laugh to myself about that save.

The second save is the one I would probably consider my “best” save when talking in terms of technique. It was during the first OT period of our game against eventual NEC Conference champions, LIU Brooklyn. The striker got a bit of space outside the top of the box and bent one to the top left corner. It was just one of those shots that goalkeepers dream of, one that you can get some nice airtime and pose for the camera. By this time, we only had a few games remaining in the season and personally that meant I only had a couple games left in my college career, so it was nice to wrap up my collegiate career with a cool memory like that.  

Goals Saved Above Replacement: 2018 MLS Goalkeeping Stats

cover photo belongs to Gary A. Vasquez, USA TODAY Sports

Recently American Soccer Analysis published an article, Going to WAR for Points Above Replacement. It’s a fantastic read and an idea that I’m sure will stem new ideas for how statistics are utilized in soccer. Unfortunately they’ve beat me to the punch a little as I’ve been working on a new goalkeeping stat for the past few years, trying to find something more intuitive than the dreadful save percentage or goals against average. There are a number of issues with traditional goalkeeping statistics, the most notable being that they are only a sliver of a goalkeeper’s impact on the game. Goals Saved Above Replacement (GSAR) quantifies all areas of a goalkeeper’s actions, from shot stopping to cross handling to pass accuracy.

Identifying a baseline or replacement-level for MLS goalkeepers is tricky with salaries and talent levels constantly swelling over the past twenty years. Matching a “0 GSAR” goalkeeper with the median salary of MLS goalkeepers in 2018 ($132,625.00) proved to be the easiest route. Using this standard, we’ll take a look at seven different categories to obtain an overall GSAR rating, as well as put a dollar amount on each MLS goalkeeper’s performance from 2018.

Goals Saved Above Replacement

Each MLS goalkeeper has had their season broken down into seven categories.

shots <10 - The first two columns are shots from inside and outside ten yards. The distance measured is from the shooter to the goalkeeper, not the shooter to the goal.

While traditional expected goal models focus on a shooter’s location on the field, GSAR focuses on different criteria: where the shot passes the goalkeeper and how long the goalkeeper had to react.

A shot’s difficulty is not deemed by where it enters the goalmouth but how far the ball was from the goalkeeper when it intersected the goalkeeper’s dive line. This angle is affected by a goalkeeper’s starting position as well as where the shooter is located on the field. If a shot is taken near the end line, the ball will pass the goalkeeper within a few feet even if it is hit the upper corner. Similarly, if a goalkeeper is closer to the shooter, they “cut down the angle” and cover more of the goalmouth, putting the ball’s path closer to their body.

shots >10 - While the first category is largely impacted by a goalkeeper’s reaction abilities, the second has more emphasis on a goalkeeper’s ability to move his feet and general angle play.

pks - Penalties aren’t a large part of the MLS season, but they do occur once every six or seven games. On average a penalty has a success rate of around 80%.

crossing - This category takes into account if a goalkeeper punched, claimed, or (for a negative value) let a cross drop in a position they should have challenged for. The position has recently seen a swing towards favoring passive goalkeeping when it comes to crosses, which explains the relatively low ratings.

error - Covering a number of different areas, only negative numbers will be found here. This can include gifting a poor rebound to the opposition, giving away a penalty, or a number of other actions that result in creating another chance on goal.

misc - The miscellaneous tallies cover any non-tradition goalkeeping action. Slotted balls back to the center of the box are the most common, as well as any actions that don’t fit a proper formula, which are entered in by hand. Unique shot deflections and 1v1 situations (amongst other actions) can be found here. Hand-adjusted values make up less than .1% of all goalkeeping actions.

passing - Passing stats consider how often and where a goalkeeper completes a pass versus where a turnovers occur. A turnover at the other side of the field is negligible, while a turnover in front of one’s own goal returns a larger negative value.

Minutes and average GSAR/90 minutes are tacked on at the end.

Projected Salaries Based Off of GSAR


Placing a value on a goalkeeper’s season is challenging as one team’s willingness to spend high on goalkeeping doesn’t necessarily mean the rest of the league will. To find a fair expected payment, the salaries and GSARs were listed in descending order to find a trend between the two. This brings up certain issues but overall it puts every goalkeeper on an even playing field when it comes to receiving payment for their services.

As some goalkeepers didn’t play the whole season - whether due to injury or a coach’s decision - finding a projected dollar amount would either have to extrapolate a goalkeeper’s stats for a full 38 game season or shrink down the corresponding payment. For example, Attinella only played two-thirds of the season but compiled a 4.74 GSAR. Should his projected GSAR-based salary be off what he could have done over 38 games or should it account for only the games he played? With a goalkeeper’s true impact being dependent on what they can bring to the field every game, I opted to extrapolate the dollar amount out to 38 games.

Categories are explained in more detail below. Goalkeepers are sorted by the difference ($$.diff) in their projected payment minus their actual. “$$.diff” is not what goalkeepers deserved to be paid, simply just the difference between actual and deserved.

m.GSAR/gm - Simply dividing a goalkeeper’s GSAR over the minutes they played, unless the goalkeeper played less than 900 minutes in the season. If this was the case, a goalkeeper was given either a positive or negative .03, depending on their GSAR. It’s not a great siphoning method, but +/- .03 keeps backup goalkeepers’ GSARs from getting out of hand with such a small sample size.

adj.GSAR - What a goalkeeper’s GSAR would have been had they played all 38 games (3060 minutes, excluding stoppage time).

gsar.$$ - How much a goalkeeper deserves to be paid, converted from a goalkeepers’ adj.GSAR. The conversation formula is based off the previous orange and white graph.

$$.diff - Goalkeepers are sorted by this column, which simply subtracts real.$$ from gsar.$$. Tyler Miller was underpaid by $333,503 while Andre Blake was overpaid by $410,805.

Have any questions? Head over to the contact page for any specific inquiries.

Top 300 European Club Elo Ratings

cover photo belongs to Getty Images

W-T-L records are tallied from the last two years of domestic and Champions League play while the Elo rating is based off of the last four years of performances. The last three columns count how many times a team plays against a team in the top 50, 150, or 300.

Individual team performances can be made available at request. An example can be found here.

Last updated January 1, 2019.

RankClubRatingCountryW-T-Lppgvs. top50vs. top150vs. top300
3Bayern München2006Germany39-3-82.4515454
5Turbine Potsdam1871Germany25-8-82.02434545
6SGS Essen1776Germany21-8-131.69444646
10Manchester City1756England31-8-82.15364850
13FFC Frankfurt1643Germany18-5-181.44444545
16SC Sand1620Germany14-6-211.17434545
20Birmingham City1566England17-8-101.69233436
21Atletico Madrid1557Spain49-8-62.46102865
22Slavia Praha1547Czech Republic38-3-22.7261723
23Sporting Braga1513Portugal39-3-22.7341137
26BIIK Kazygurt1490Kazakhstan39-0-22.8571618
30Eskilstuna United1435Sweden18-9-141.54354444
33Hoffenheim II1390Germany31-5-52.3943145
35Sporting CP1378Portugal42-4-32.6551742
44Glasgow City1334Scotland37-4-52.541541
46Werder Bremen1321Germany15-5-221.19313843
48Spartak Subotica1308Serbia26-0-82.2931123
49St. Pölten1292Austria31-1-52.544927
52Bayern München II1281Germany24-8-101.973145
53Olimpia Cluj1280Romania34-2-32.67357
58Sparta Praha1272Czech Republic28-2-52.4691117
62Fleury 911262France10-9-141.18153636
64PK-35 Vantaa1251Finland32-10-72.1612441
67USV Jena1243Germany11-8-240.95354546
72Wolfsburg II1232Germany27-6-92.0752341
73KIF Örebro1231Sweden18-13-141.49183948
75Zvezda Perm1224Russia19-3-91.9451930
77Fortuna Hjørring1218Denmark38-6-72.3581431
78Bristol City1215England10-4-210.97273335
85AC Milan1184Italy8-3-02.45238
95Medyk Konin1139Poland41-6-92.32910
97CSKA Moskva1136Russia16-5-61.9651526
98SFK 20001136Bosnia and Herzegovina39-3-42.612319
100Lokomotiv Moskva1131Russia5-5-41.432912
102Athletic Club1115Spain31-9-171.7982459
106Thór / KA1103Iceland29-5-72.2441225
108Górnik Łęczna1100Poland44-6-42.56589
110Manchester United1091England8-1-12.5018
111Barcelona FA1086Cyprus36-3-32.642813
114Sturm Graz1077Austria25-5-62.220724
115Apollon Limassol1070Cyprus33-4-52.452512
119Ramat HaSharon1056Israel36-3-82.360829
120Hessen Wetzlar1049Germany19-4-191.4593445
121Yzeure Allier1043France16-9-51.901324
123Kiryat Gat1040Israel36-6-102.1931037
124Åland United1035Finland19-12-161.4702236
125ASPTT Albi1035France14-7-251.07163847
126Real Betis1028Spain29-6-231.682560
127Turbine Potsdam II1025Germany22-4-171.6332440
132FFC Frankfurt II1010Germany12-12-181.14103145
133Estoril Praia1009Portugal26-6-121.9191638
140Valadares Gaia991Portugal24-6-141.7781237
147LASK Crvena Zvezda970Serbia19-4-42.265515
149Ataşehir Belediyespor964Turkey20-4-32.37149
152Real Sociedad951Spain23-10-241.39112660
153Arminia Bielefeld950Germany27-2-122.0211529
155ADO Den Haag944Netherlands23-8-171.6112139
162Grenoble Foot 38924France14-7-91.6301323
163Viktoria Berlin919Germany28-2-12.77006
164Maccabi Kishronot Hadera916Israel26-9-121.8501429
165Rayo Vallecano911Spain21-9-271.2692660
166Charlton Athletic911England26-1-32.630213
172Sporting de Huelva889Spain19-9-291.1682758
173Slovan Bratislava887Slovakia34-0-32.76019
175Ladies Genk878Belgium15-10-111.5301632
176Schott Mainz876Germany19-6-181.4782335
180Standard Liège862Belgium13-10-151.2911734
181Partizán Bardejov861Slovakia31-1-42.61029
182Brighton & Hove Albion859England15-5-181.3271438
184Yeovil Town853England1-3-310.17263435
187Stade de Reims848France26-9-62.120224
188Mašinac Niš848Serbia16-4-71.9361216
191Konak Belediyespor835Turkey19-4-52.18039
192Diósgyőri VTK829Hungary14-7-101.5841123
194Grand Bodø823Norway4-4-350.37134044
199NSA Sofia817Bulgaria28-0-42.63045
203Tottenham Hotspur808England14-3-121.550528
206Teleing GMT799Slovenia18-1-42.39035
208Wexford Youths796Ireland28-7-52.281210
213PEC Zwolle786Netherlands15-7-261.0892143
215Sand II780Germany25-5-181.671827
216ASA Tel Aviv780Israel22-5-211.4801330
222Västerås BK 30757Sweden13-9-280.9623752
223Le Havre752France6-3-31.75007
227Union Berlin749Germany29-4-122.021519
228Viktória Szombathely747Hungary16-10-161.3851226
230Freiburg II746Germany10-8-161.1251533
231London Bees744England16-6-191.320736
232Young Boys742Switzerland19-12-211.3361741
233Olimpija Ljubljana740Slovenia31-0-122.161512
235La Roche-sur-Yon736France25-7-920221
236Magdeburger FFC734Germany25-1-72.3019
240Pierrots Vauban722France2-5-60.850611
241Iskra719Bosnia and Herzegovina21-10-71.920812
244Saint Malo711France22-7-121.780225
247Slovácko701Czech Republic15-2-141.5281212
248Blackburn Rovers701England28-1-22.74014
249Santa Teresa699Spain9-8-260.8172043
250Servette Chênois698Switzerland5-3-61.292312
254FFC 08 Niederkirchen688Germany13-7-241.0582235
255Győri ETO687Hungary14-12-161.2971532
257União Ferreirense677Portugal9-5-190.9761329
258Aston Villa671England10-8-210.9701035
259Elpides Karditsas671Greece20-3-62.17116
260Millwall Lionesses670England21-7-131.710738
263HK / Víkingur666Iceland5-3-1010613
266Coventry United657England20-3-52.25004
268Cardiff Metropolitan656Wales19-4-32.35124
269Peamount United655Ireland25-5-72.160010
270VSK Aarhus648Denmark19-3-231.3381227
271Linfield647Northern Ireland16-0-82246
275VGA Saint-Maur633France18-7-161.490225
276Eintracht Frankfurt633Germany25-5-1020119
277Köln II631Germany9-5-171.0361524
278OH Leuven630Belgium9-4-190.9701326
279Thisted FC627Denmark9-5-101.332411
281Jahn Calden626Germany6-2-71.330111
282Maccabi Holon624Israel18-6-211.3301226
284Tirana AS620Albania20-2-42.38006
285Doncaster Belles617England25-5-121.90230
286US Orléans617France5-2-41.55006
287Res Roma615Italy9-4-190.9741519
289Sheffield United611England4-1-51.3018
290Czarni Sosnowiec609Poland31-10-102.0241111
292Chievo Verona605Italy8-3-190.951222
297ALG Spor591Turkey5-1-22013
298Forfar Farmington590Scotland7-2-121.13618
299Metz ESAP590France8-8-151.0301727
300USV Jena II586Germany15-5-141.4711024